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Biden's Plan To Replace Lead Pipe Would Be A Massive, Expensive Project


President Biden wants to spend more than $2 trillion on U.S. infrastructure. That would include replacing all lead pipes connecting homes to city water mains.


PRESIDENT JOE BIDEN: Everybody remembers what happened in Flint. There's hundreds of Flints all across America.

KING: He's talking about Flint, Mich., of course. But this will not be a simple process. Here's Steve Carmody from Michigan Radio.

STEVE CARMODY, BYLINE: Flint resident Harold Harrington is a master plumber. Right now, he's digging through his toolbox.

HAROLD HARRINGTON: This piece of galvanized was in my basement. It fed my upstairs faucet. And this is out of my upstairs bathroom. OK? It's full of lead.

CARMODY: Flint's lead crisis began in 2014, when the city's drinking water source was switched to save money. The new water source was not properly treated, damaging old pipes which leached lead into the drinking water. To fix the problem, Flint has been replacing lead and galvanized pipes with new copper service lines. Harrington has helped do that and says it's not easy. For example, they're not always straight. Harrington holds up an old lead pipe twisted like a pretzel.

HARRINGTON: You're not just going to dig a hole because those have been there longer than the gas lines, the cable lines, the fiber optic lines. You've got tree roots that have grown in the last hundred years. You've got sidewalk, streets. It's a major project, and every one of them are different.

CARMODY: Even determining whether the pipe in the ground is all lead, all copper or a combination can be tricky. Old water department records may be incomplete or out of date. And for decades, water utilities only replaced pipes to the property line, creating Franken-pipes (ph) with a mix of lead, galvanized and copper, which now have to be fully replaced.

Since 2016, the city of Flint has inspected more than 26,000 service lines and replaced nearly 10,000 lead and galvanized pipes. Michigan Congressman Dan Kildee has spent the past six years channeling federal funds to alleviate the lead's long-term health effects on his hometown neighbors.

DAN KILDEE: If, 10 years ago, 15 or $20 million could have been committed to upgrade the water system in Flint and to get on a path of eliminating lead service lines, maybe the half a billion dollars that's already been committed could have been avoided.

ERIK OLSON: The Biden plan is way overdue.

CARMODY: That's Erik Olson with the Natural Resources Defense Council. Olson says lead and galvanized pipes continue to be a problem despite being banned in 1986.

OLSON: A lot of people think this is only a problem, say, in Flint or a few big older cities. But in fact, it's distributed all over the country. And it really is a major public health threat.

CARMODY: Lead can cause damage to the brain and kidneys. A particular concern is the effect lead can have on young children. Lead exposure may slow development in kids under 7 years old, leading to learning and behavioral problems. Nationwide, the number of lead and galvanized pipes that need to be replaced is estimated between eight and 10 million. The Biden proposal calls for spending $45 billion, but it could be more expensive. The American Water Works Association estimates the cost could exceed $60 billion.

That concerns Allen Overton. He's the pastor of Flint's Christ Fellowship Missionary Baptist Church. Overton joined others who sued to get the city to replace all of its lead service lines. Now he worries disadvantaged communities may lose out if more affluent suburbs rush in and deplete the federal funding the Biden administration is proposing.

ALLEN OVERTON: People in brown, Black - African American, Latino communities that we know are going to have some disadvantages coming up the ranks anyhow, let's start there.

CARMODY: Others question whether replacing lead service lines should be such a large priority. Lead pipe replacement makes up nearly half of what the Biden administration has proposed spending on upgrading the nation's water systems. But by some estimates, the U.S. needs to spend close to nine times that much. David LaFrance of the American Water Works Association says it's been too long since the last major update to the nation's drinking and wastewater infrastructure.

DAVID LAFRANCE: A large investment was made in distribution systems after World War II. Those pipes are all coming of age, and they all need to be replaced. That's where we are today.

CARMODY: However, even with federal support, there will likely be those who resist replacing old service lines. There's even some reluctance in Michigan, which has its own mandate to remove all lead service lines within the next two decades. In the little city of Mason, some of the city's estimated 1,400 lead service lines date back to the 1800s. Mayor Russ Whipple says Mason was already slowly replacing old pipes during routine roadwork and insists there's no need to rush it.

RUSS WHIPPLE: Our lead almost never reaches the threshold. When it does, it barely does. And usually, we find out that the reason it did is because of a bad test.

CARMODY: Despite his reservations, though, Whipple says if federal funding becomes available, his community will likely apply.

Just up the road from Mason in Lansing, the state capital, the city's water utility has already replaced all of its lead service lines. But it wasn't easy, and it took 12 years. Dick Peffley is the general manager of the Lansing Board of Water & Light. He says most Lansing residents willingly let utility crews inside their homes and excavate their lawns to replace the pipes. But some didn't. And Peffley says the utility had to use what he describes as tough love.

DICK PEFFLEY: We just finally sent a series of letter - said listen, you know, we need to get your lead service replaced for your own safety. And you know, we might be forced to turn your water off, and we'll turn it on when we put new service in. That letter got the attention.

CARMODY: The city of Flint hopes to soon join the ranks of communities that have completely replaced all their lead service lines. Flint Mayor Sheldon Neeley plans to inspect the last 500 service lines this summer.

SHELDON NEELEY: It's a journey, and we're completing that journey now.

CARMODY: It's a journey that many American cities and towns will need federal help to take.

For NPR News, I'm Steve Carmody in Flint, Mich.

(SOUNDBITE OF THE WATER'S "PERSONALITY HALL") Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.

Steve Carmody has been a reporter for Michigan Radio since 2005. Steve previously worked at public radio and television stations in Florida, Oklahoma and Kentucky, and also has extensive experience in commercial broadcasting. During his two and a half decades in broadcasting, Steve has won numerous awards, including accolades from the Associated Press and Radio and Television News Directors Association. Away from the broadcast booth, Steve is an avid reader and movie fanatic. Q&A